Stephen Wade Thomson
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For, To, Because of, By

"para" + verbo = "to" + verbo

Are you ready to go?

I'll make a note of the event in my calendar, to help me remember.

To get to Moncloa, take Metro Line 10 or 4.

To build a sand castle, you need wet sand.

To send a letter in the mail, you need to buy a stamp.

Do you have the tools to fix the leak?

Meditation helps to feel less stressed.

Do we have anything to drink?

I have a lot of work to do.

"que" + verbo = "to" + verbo
tengo que ir = I have to go
cosas que hacer= things to do
nada que ver= nothing to do with


"para" + algo, alguien = "for" + someone, something (including gerund)

I baked this pie for you.

This is a gift for you, from my mother.

For someone who doesn't go to the gym, you are very muscular.

For me, ambience is the most important aspect of a cafe.

I bought you something special for your birthday.

Don't eat the cheese, it's for tonight's dinner recipe.

Chopsticks are for eating chinese food.

This antibiotic cream is for treating burns and cuts.


"so that" + SVO = "to" + VO

So that you aren't late, set your alarm.
So you aren't late, set your alarm
To be on time, set your alarm.

Change "so" or "so that" --> "to"

I made some sandwiches so that we will have something to eat during the trip.

Let's leave now so we get there early.

You have to boil the potatoes first so that they become soft.

Give me your number so that I can call you.

Just so you know, I have your headphones at my house.

Take this medicine so you can get some sleep.


Change "to" --> "so" or "so that".

To make you more comfortable, I invited our mutual friend Belén.

To be good at tennis, it's important to learn both forehand and backhand.

To lose weight effectively, you have to do exercise.



"por" + tiempo = "for" + time

When I broke my leg, I was in a cast for 6 months.

I will love you forever.

I lived in San Francisco for 9 years.

We've been here for 2 hours.


"por" + algo, alguien = "because of" + something, someone

Because of the construction project, the train was delayed 2 hours.

I was late because of you!

(exception) For some reason, I can't get used to living in the new house.



"por" (por medio de) = "by"

a novel by Ian McEwan

a film by Pedro Almodóvar

-How do you get to the museum? -By metro.

By luck, my photo album survived the fire.

"para" + tiempo = "by"

By the time we arrived to the theatre, the show had already begun.

I have to have this paper finished by Friday.